Conventional concrete, which can be considered to be an artificial rock, is not intrinsically waterproof. It absorbs water.

The rate of absorption depends upon many factors, including the porosity of concrete. In addition, excessive contents of

water-soluble alkalis in cement, Today’s concrete structures, compared to concrete structures of earlier decades,

also suffer from higher thermal and shrinkagestresses and the resulting cracks1-5. The result: water retaining structures, e.g.,

tunnels, subways, basements, etc. are characterized by water seepage and leakage unless such structures will be effectively waterproofed.